Allyson Gonzalez studies Jewish life in the modern period, particularly within the Iberian Peninsula and the Sephardi diaspora. A cultural historian, she focuses on the often highly mobile Sephardim (the descendants of Iberian Jewry) during the collapse of empire and the rise of the modern state. Drawing on a wide variety of source material, she explores the cultural and religious politics that unfold during changing political regimes.

Her work has been supported by a Fulbright-Hays Award, the Tauber Institute for the Study of European Jewry, and an Andrew Mellon Dissertation-Year Fellowship. Before returning to graduate school, she was a journalist who, with her newspaper team, was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize. In 2017–2018, she was awarded the New Voices in Jewish Studies Award from Columbia University and Fordham University.

Gonzalez received her PhD from Brandeis University.